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  • Maße und Gewichte | glueckauf

    Mass and weight: With the sedentary peoples and with the shift from hunting and fishing to agriculture and animal husbandry, the need for suitable measurement systems grew. The earliest weights and units of measurement were based on measurements of body parts and the natural environment. Early Babylonian , Egyptian , and Bible writings show that length was first measured using arm, hand, or foot measurements. Time was divided according to the orbital periods of the sun , moon and other celestial bodies. If you wanted to compare the volume of containers such as bottles or clay jars, they were filled with plant seeds, which were then counted. Our current knowledge of early weights and measures comes from a variety of sources. Archaeologists have recovered some early standards that are kept in museums today. Comparison between the dimensions of buildings and descriptions by contemporary authors can provide more information. ​ Length measurement: Measuring lengths is one of the most important tasks of a mark cutter. The oldest form of length measurement came from the Romans and affected limbs of the human body, such as arms, hands, feet or crotches. When a person spreads out both arms, the result is a measurement of about 1.70 to 1.90 m long, which was referred to as a "fathom". The "Klafter" was divided into 6 equal parts, which were called "foot" or "shoe". The "foot" was again divided into 12 equal parts, which were called "inches" or "thumb widths", following the duodecimal division. The lengths of the fathom system varied greatly locally and regionally. Only the Viennese fathom was an exception, since it was used from the 16th century. remained practically the same length. The fathom/feet/inch system was used as a technical measurement system exclusively in construction, mining, military and surveying. It was never used in the textile trade. In addition to the cord measure, the "cubit" appears again and again as another measure of length. Although the "cubit" as a forearm length represented a natural archetype, so to speak, its length varied astonishingly from region to region. For example, lengths in the range of 0.765 to 0.802 m were referred to as "Wiener Ellen". The "cubits" were not evenly divided, like the "fathom" by "foot" and "inches". They had an uneven division, mostly into 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 and 1/32 parts of the "cubit". These parts did not have their own name. The system of cubits was exclusively a trade measure, predominantly a cut goods measure for textiles. There were in Europe until the 18th century. many hundreds of different cubit lengths, which made trade and communication very difficult. Nevertheless, the "Elle" was valid until the end of 1875. The linear dimensions valid in mining were determined by measuring sticks decreed by the sovereign and were only valid for the respective district. In the Salzkammergut, each salt mine originally had its own "staff". To standardize the measuring system, the emperor introduced the "Österreichisches Kammergutstabl" with a length of 1.195 m. The "stick" was divided into 8 "eighths", the "eighth" again into 6 "inches" and 2 "eighths" made 1 "shoe". In 1768, Empress Maria Theresa issued "the introductory patent for the Viennese weight and measure". The now legal "Viennese units" only slowly began to establish themselves in the Salzkammergut. The "Kammergutstabl" was not replaced by the "Wiener Klafter" until 1838. The meter, which is still valid today, was introduced at the Austrian salt works on January 1, 1876. ​ Cord, shoe and inch measurements: 1 Austrian mile 7.585km 1 Viennese fathom (°) 1,896m 1 Linz fathom (°) 1.816m 1 chamber goods fathom (°) 1.785m 1 Hallstatt mountain fathom (°) 1,991 m 1 Viennese shoe or foot (') 31.60 cm 1 Kammergut shoe or foot (') 29.75 cm 1 Vienna inch ('') 2.63cm 1 Kammergut inch ('') 2.48 cm Length measurements for textiles: 1 Gmundner Elle 0.795 m 1 Viennese cubit 0.778 m Length dimensions in mining: 1 Bergstabel Chamber Estate 1.195 m 1 Ausseer Bergstab 1.179m 1 Hallstatt and Ischler Bergstabel 1.192 m 1 Hall mountain table 1.169 m 1 Salzburg mountain table 1,199m Length dimensions for wood: 1 stick of spruce or fir wood 6,807m Area measurement: ​ Cord, shoe and inch measurements: 1 Austrian square mile 57.54 km² 1 Viennese square fathom 3,596 sqm 1 Viennese square foot 999.3 cm² 1 Vienna square inch 6.939 cm² ​ Room measurement: ​ From the High Middle Ages to the 18th century. it was customary for us to put up publicly accessible standards, stone masses and scales so that the merchants and weavers could compare their own measurements and on the other hand the buyers could check for themselves whether they had received the correct measurement. A measure patent issued by Emperor Maximilian II in 1570 ordered the public attachment of the "land measures" (fathoms and cubits) to town halls or churches and the installation of stone "landmasons" in market squares. In earlier times up to the 19th century. Grain was not traded by weight but by volume. In Austria, the "Metzen", a so-called dry capacity measure, was generally used as a measure. The Metzen was canceled and fully counted. ​ Cord, shoe and inch measurements: 1 Vienna cubic fathom 6.82m³ 1 Vienna cubic foot 31.59 dm³ 1 Vienna cubic inch 18.28cc Room dimensions for wood: 1 pan Widholz (firewood) spruce or fir 398 m³ 1 pan Widholz beech 341 m³ 1 Rachel Widholz (1/48th of a pan) Spruce or Fir 8.3m³ 1 Rachel Widholz Beech 7.1 m³ Capacity for brine: 1 bucket 56.57 dm³ or 56.6 l 1 March to 180 buckets 10.18m³ 1 room for 2,000 buckets (until 1677) 113.14m³ 1 room for 4,320 buckets (until the 18th century) 244.38m³ 1 room for 3,240 buckets (from the 18th century) 183.29m³ Capacity for grain: 1 Gmundner Metzen (until 1752) 62L 1 courage to 30 Gmundner Metzen 1,860L 1 Stockerau Metzen (from 1752) 61.49L Weight measurement: ​ As the oldest measuring instruments, scales have been in use for more than 7,000 years. The most original form is the equal-armed beam balance, which was used until the 19th century. was in widespread use. From the 15th century princely cementation offices existed as predecessors of today's calibration offices. As princely officials, the Zimenter had to periodically calibrate scales, weights and length scales, i.e. to check that they corresponded to prescribed original models. After the check, the Zimenter attached an official mark. In 1777, Empress Maria Theresa ordered in a "Cementation Patent" that lengths, weights and scales be checked every two years. Stone weights were not allowed to be used because of the high risk of fraud, and they were also not allowed to be provided with a cement stamp. ​ General weight measurements: 1 hundredweight Vienna (q) 56kg 1 Viennese pound 0.56kg 1 loth 1.75 dkg 1 pinch 4.38g 1 quintal (salt works from 01.01.1876) 100kg Weight measurements for salt: 1 load of salt (100-115 pounds over time) 56.6-64.4kg 1 cartload of salt (115 pounds circa 1769) 64.4kg 1 pound fodder = 240 pieces fodder of salt 15.46t 1 Schilling Fuder = 30 Fuder salt 1.93t 1 barrel of salt (hundredweight barrel) 61.6kg 1 cup of salt 7.16kg 1 Bohemian runner (150 Viennese pounds) 84.0kg ​ Metric system: The first defined metric system was introduced in France. In 1791 the intention to create such a system was legislated; it was introduced in 1793 at the time of the Jacobin Reign of Terror . For the first time in history, an artificially developed system of measurements was introduced. The decimal metric system was introduced with the aim of creating a system of measurement "for all time, for all peoples". The original meter , which was created as a reference, is kept in Paris. The first metric system was based on centimeters , grams and seconds ( cgs system , c for centimeter) and these units were very useful in science and technology . Later metric systems were based on meter , kilogram and second ( mks system ) to be more manageable for practical applications. In technology and industry, the technical system of measurement was created, which had the meter, kilopond (formerly: force kilogram), second and degree as the basic units. Metric units have spread all over the world, first to non-English speaking countries but more recently there as well. The metric system was slow to be adopted in France, but scholars and engineers considered its adoption as an international system desirable. On 20. On May 18, 1875, an international treaty, the Meter Convention , was signed by seventeen states. Various organizations and laboratories were formed to create and maintain a unified system. The meter was introduced at the Austrian saltworks on January 1, 1876. The metric system is simpler than the old units of measurement because different sized units are always smooth powers of ten of other units. This relationship between the units leads to easy conversions from one unit to another in the decimal system . The currently predominant form of a metric system is the International System of Units (SI – System). It was founded in 1954 - not yet under its current name and initially with only six base units - and is also based on the meter, kilogram and second, but also contains other base units for temperature , electric current , luminous intensity and amount of substance. Sources used: Carl Schraml "The Upper Austrian Salt Works from the beginning of the 16th to the middle of the 18th century", Vienna, 1932 Franz Kieninger "Forestry since the 14th century", company newspaper Österreichische Salinen, 3rd JG, 4th H, Vienna, 1930 "Brine and salt", Bad Ischl exhibition, catalogue, Bad Ischl, 1987 Anton Dicklberger "Saline history of Upper Austria", transcription by Thomas Nussbaumer, Weitra, 2018 Alois Fellner "Mining Dictionary", Vienna, 1999 Harald Witthöft "From the mountain measure in the Schwazer Bergbuch", Der Anschnitt 60, Bochum, 2008 Wikipedia "Weights and Measures" ​

  • 21 Moosbergstollen | glueckauf

    21 The Moosberg tunnel struck: 1577 (together with Matthias tunnel) leaving: Hired 1586, abandoned 1690 Elevation: 625 meters (m) overall length 312 sticks (372 meters) worker: only sideways hope and sink works Naming: former area designation upper Mooseck , today Obereck With the first tunnels driven into the Ischler Salzberg, only short and poor salt deposits could be driven in both the Lauffner salt dome (1563 Mitterberg tunnel, 1567 Alter Steinberg tunnel) and the Perneck salt dome (1567 Lipplesgraben tunnel, originally Obernberg tunnel). Therefore, from 1577, an intensive search for further salt deposits on the Ischler Salzberg began. ​ Detailed information about the intensive search for salt at that time can be found in Anton Dicklberger's Salina History of Upper Austria from 1817. On October 31, 1577, by order of the salt official Christoph Haiden, an inspection was held at the Ischler Salzberg by salt mining officials. ​ As part of the inspection, a new tunnel dug in 1577 on the upper Moosegg in the forest of Hans Reicher to examine a salted lake was driven through. However, with a total length of 10 rods (11.9 m), this only penetrated 3 rods (3.6 m) of well-salted medium , which also carried acidic water. ​ In 1577 the new tunnel was given the name Moosberg tunnel . ​ In 1580, the Salzamtmann Christoph Haiden again inspected the Ischler Salzberg. At the same time, the further advance of the field location of the main shaft of the Moosberg tunnel was discussed, since only 11 sticks (13.1 m) of salted rock were exposed in this tunnel. ​ In 1583, at the quarterly Haeuer measurement, it was decided to lengthen the 11 bar (13.1 m) long salt medium found in the Moosberg tunnel, where the main shaft had still been worked in vain in the deaf mountains, to search for the salt store and to examine the same with a sink work in depth. In 1584, two inspections were even carried out to establish rules with regard to an appropriate exploration of the Ischler Salzberg. Although no other salt rocks could be found in the Moosberg tunnel apart from the 11 Stabel (13.1 m) long salt medium, due to all hopes pursued sideways and in depth, the inspectors decided, despite these circumstances, to continue the advantageously located tunnel operate. Because of the traces of salt found both above and inside the tunnel, the hope of finding a rich core mountain was not given up and it was decreed that the deserted field site of the main shaft should be continued towards the ridge of the mountain after twelve hours (to the south). ​ In the hopefully continued operation of the Moosberg tunnel, there was a strong inrush of water at the field location of the main shaft made of fissured rock. Since the necessary amount of brine could not be produced in the long term with the tunnels previously dug at the Ischler Salzberg and the hope of finding a new salt store in the Moosberg tunnel had to be given up, it was decided in 1584 to dig a new investigation tunnel at the Roßmoos. ​ In 1584, the inspectors also suggested lowering the sinkage from the deepest point in the Moosberg tunnel, which had been operated in vain for 8 years now, by a further 14 rods (16.8 m) towards the depths . The inspectors were of the opinion that in the area of the Moosberg tunnel there was a salt mine that had been in use for many years and is now rotten . By further lowering the sink works, one was convinced that areas of the salt mountains could be reached that could not be reached long ago. Contrary to expectations, no existing salt mountains were opened up with this newly sunk section. ​ Anton Dicklberger thinks the suspicion of an old salt mountain at Moosegg is very unlikely. No traces of older, abandoned buildings were found when the Moosberg tunnel was being excavated. Although a saltworks near Ischl is mentioned in some old documents, it seems more likely to Dicklberger that this was not operated at Moosegg but in Pfandl near Ischl. ​ On February 11 and 12, 1586, another mountain survey was carried out on the Ischler Salzberg with the involvement of several mountain experts from the salt works in Hallstatt, Aussee and Ischl. Since the salt mountains had been excavated over a whole mountain thickness by the test digging operated by the Matthias tunnel, the new mining tunnels on Moosegg and Roßmoos , which were more than uncertain in terms of success, were finally discontinued. ​ The Moosberg tunnel, operated with great hopes between 1577 and 1586, was extended to a length of probably 120 Stabel (143 m). Only 11 sticks (13.1 m) of salt agents could be found. ​ The Moosberg tunnel was probably occupied with interruptions in the following 103 years from 1586 to 1690. The main shaft of the Moosberg tunnel with a smaller profile was lengthened by a further 192 bars (228.9 m) to a total of 312 bars (371.9 m). Shortly before the attack on the Rabenbrunn tunnel, which was also driven towards the Lauffner salt dome in 1692, the Moosberg tunnel was finally abandoned in 1690 and left to decay. ​ Because of the good stability of the surrounding mountains, a large part of the main shaft of the Moosberg tunnel has been preserved to this day. ​ The Moosberg tunnel was popular with adventurous young people up until the 1970s. The remains of a raft that was built to cross the water dam and some signatures in the clayey mountains bear witness to this to this day. By the mid-1980s at the latest, the mouth of the Moosberg tunnel had completely rolled up. ​ In August 2018, Horst Feichtinger uncovered the entrance to the tunnel after extensive, manual digging, so that it was possible to drive on it. On August 14, 2018, members of the IGM (Mitterbergstollen interest group) and the landowner carried out an extensive tunnel inspection, including photographic documentation of the still accessible mine spaces. ​ The approximately 430-year-old Moosberg tunnel is the oldest, still drivable mine building in the Ischler Salzberg, which is in its original condition. The tunnel, made with hammers and iron work, is a first-class mining monument with its unique sinter formations for the Ischler Salzberg. Due to the great importance of the Moosberg tunnel, the IGM decided in September 2018 to clear the main shaft up to the sintering at tunnel meters (Stm.) 82 to 92 and thus make it accessible for interested visitors. The tunnel, which was completely hand-carved and is still passable over a length of 221 m, was driven south-east from the anchor point at 625 m above sea level, following the mountain ridge. ​ The standard profile of the tunnel is around 190 cm high, 80 cm at the top and 120 cm at the base. ​ The first 7 pieces had to be made of wood when it was recaptured. From Stm. 7 to 25 the tunnel was driven in stable layers of lime. The standard profile in the front section of the tunnel is around 1.9 m in height and 0.8 m in roof width and 1.2 m in bottom width. From Stm. 25 the limestone layers merge into the pebbly, thick-banked marl limestone of the Rossfeld layers. ​ The sandstones and conglomerates of the Rossfeld Formation were deposited in the early Cretaceous period around 120 million years ago. During deposition, massive undersea mass movements with mudslides and debris flows took place. The layered deposits with a chaotic structure made of older limestone boulders and hazel rocks, which geologists call olisthostromes , can also be found in the Moosberg tunnel. ​ At Stm. 35 there is an approx. 0.5 m thick clayey deposit. In this clayey breccia one finds bluish violet clays that indicate leached Haselgebirge. The storage was cleared up to a height of approx. 3 m in the course of the original tunnel excavation. At Stm. 39 one finds another clayey intercalation with a total thickness of 1.8 m and finally at Stm. 59 a third intercalation also containing Haselgebirge stones with a thickness of approx. 1.0 m. The thick banked marl layers in the area of the last two deposits are heavily sintered. ​ The extensions and sink works mentioned by Dicklberger were probably created in the area of these 3 deposits, since the leached Haselgebirge stones were interpreted as a sure sign of salt-bearing mountains. ​ From Stm. 65, an extensive waterlogging began behind a collapse cone. The remains of a raft built in the 1970s, which was used to cross the tunnel lake, which was up to 1 m deep in rainy times, were found in this area. Unsuccessful attempts to cross the tunnel lake on stilts have also been handed down. In the course of the demolition work, the massive collapse cone from Stm. 57 to 65 was completely cleared out and the waterlogged was drained. ​ From Stm. 65, the in-situ, stable marl layers become thinner. The strong water flow in this area has led to massive sintering. The wooden stamps built in to protect against dripping water from Stm. 82 to 92 are still clearly visible today. Most of the pit wood has decomposed over the centuries, but the impressive sinter imprints have survived to this day. A standard profile of 1.7 m line height and 0.6 m ridge and 1.0 m bottom width can be reconstructed for this section from the expansion remains. ​ From Stm. 99 there are thin layers of marl and Schrambach. The Schrambach layers were also deposited after the Rossfeld layers in the early Cretaceous period. The rust-brown weathered limestone marl is tectonically overprinted. Clearly recognizable armored areas as well as staggered layers of mylonite bear witness to massive mountain movements. Due to the disruption of the marl structure, from Stm. 99 more and more collapses occurred. From Stm. 127, the marl becomes thicker again in a much more undisturbed bed and thus also more stable. ​ At Stm. 130 there is a clear bend in the route towards the south. This change in the direction of tunneling is likely to be due to the specifications of the inspection of 1584. ​ Due to the now stronger water flow, you will find extensive sinter terraces with some water ponds on the sole. In some cases there are clearly visible trace nail residues in the sinter. At Stm. 143 there is an impressive narrowing of the driven route profile to 1.8 m route height and 0.6 m ridge and 0.8 m bottom width. Presumably, here in 1586 the drive of the main shaft of the Moosberg tunnel ended for the time being. In the 104 years that followed, until the drive was finally shut down in 1690, the smaller route profile was chosen for cost reasons for the following tunnel section. From Stm. 140 to 197 are the stable, partly chert-bearing limestones of the 150 million year old Oberalmer strata from the late Jurassic period. From Stm. 197 you can find layers of marl again in the hanging wall of the Oberalmerkalke. The thick banked marl layers that are now present are tectonically heavily overprinted. Due to the flat bedding, massive ridge collapses occurred on mylonite layers and fissure areas. From Stm. 221 the route is currently completely broken. A further advance into the main shaft of the Moosberg tunnel, which is about 150 m long, would only be possible after extensive clearing and securing work. Above ground, north-west of the mouth hole, the extensive slag heap is still clearly visible. With an average crown width of 2 m, this is almost 27 m long and approx. 6 to 7 m high at the end of the heap. Sources used: Dicklberger Anton, Systematic history of the salt pans in Upper Austria, Volume I, Ischl 1817, Transcription by Thomas Nussbaumer, Weitra 2018. Schraml Carl, The Upper Austrian salt works from the beginning of the 16th to the middle of the 18th century, Vienna 1932. Schiendorfer Leopold, Perneck - A village through the ages, Linz 2006. ​

  • 10 Frauenholzstollen | glueckauf

    10 Der Frauenholz – Stollen Stollenname: „Frauenholz – Stollen“ Ischler Verweser Raphael Frauenholz Angeschlagen: 2. Oktober 1610 Verlassen: bis 1745 unterhalten, verlassen um 1848 Länge: 706 m Seehöhe: 880 m Der Frauenholz - Stollen wurde anfangs durch einen vom Neuberg – Stollen abgeteuften, 30 Stabel (35,8m) langen Probe – Schurf („Probschurf“) von oben herunter untersucht. Nachdem die weitere Tiefenerstreckung des Salzlagers nachgewiesen werden konnte, wurde der nach dem damaligen Ischler Verweser Raphael Frauenholz benannte neue Stollen am 2. Oktober 1610 angeschlagen. Es dauerte bis am 22. Juni 1632, also 22 (!) Jahre, bis das Salzlager erreicht wurde. Um das Salz zu erreichen mussten ca. 530 m taubes Gestein durchörtert werden, was einem Jahresvortrieb von ganzen 25 m entspricht (sofern der Stollen dauernd mit Mannschaft belegt war). Der Frauenholz – Stollen war der erste Stollen, der das Pernecker Salzlager von Nord nach Süd („Mitternacht gegen Mittag“) unterfuhr. Alle höher gelegenen Stollen vom Neuberg – bis Johannes – Stollen wurden von West nach Ost („Abend gegen Morgen“) angesetzt. Da das Gelände auf der Nordseite und wesentlich steiler ist, war die Hauptschachtricht um einiges kürzer und der Aufschluss deshalb mit wesentlich geringeren Kosten möglich. Eines der ältesten Denkmäler alter Ischler Bergbautätigkeit ist die in Stein gehauene Inschrift des Frauenholz – Stollens. Nach wechselvoller Geschichte, heute am Kaiser Maria Theresia – Stollen angebracht, berichtet diese Tafel vom Anschlag des Frauenholz – Stollens 1610 bis zum Antreffen des Salzes nach 22 Jahren: Den 2. Octobris nach Christ, unseres Heilands Geburt, im 1610 Jahr, unter Rudolfo dem anderten Römischen Kaiser Matthia dem anderten König zu Ungarn Designierten zum König in Böhmen regierenden Erzherzogen zu Österreich etc., bei Herrn Veit Spindler, Salzamtmann, Raphael Fraunholzen, Verwesern und Georg Nützen, Gegenschreibern ist dieser Salzberg durch Andrä Kälssen, Bergmeistern, Leonhard Astern, Bergschaffern, aufgeschlagen, angefangen und von den Bergleuten nach Gedachtes ihres Verwesers Name der Fraunholzberg genennet. Das Salz aber angetroffen worden den 22. Juni 1632 unter Ferdinand dem anderten, Römischen Kaiser Ferdinand dem dritten erwählten und gekrönten König zu Ungarn und Böhmen, Erzherzog zu Österreich, bei Herrn Georg Brugglachern Salzamtmann Johann Resfelt von Rosenthal, Verwesern und obgedachten Georg Nützen, Gegenschreiber, Andrä Kälssen, Bergmeistern und Martin Kälssen, Bergschaffern. Gott geb Gnade. Amen. Die Länge der Frauenholz Stollen – Hauptschachtricht betrug bis zur ersten Kehre („Kößler – Umbau“) durch das taube Gebirge hinein 339 Stabel (404,1m). Anschließend wurde noch die „Krechen“ – Hauptschachtricht („Gerade“ – Hauptschachtricht) im Salzgebirge weitergetrieben und der Streubel – Schöpfbau darauf angelegt. Die Krechen – Hauptschachtricht wurde in der Hoffnung, das Salz länger anzutreffen, im tauben Hangendgebirge noch über 250 Stabel (298,0m) fortgesetzt. Weil aber nur Stein, taubes Gebirge und süßes Wasser erbaut wurde und daraus kein Nutzen zu ziehen war, wurde die Verlängerung der Krechen – Hauptschachtricht mit einem Lettenverschlag verdämmt und das dahinter erbaute Wasser durch Röhren bis zum Mundloch des Frauenholz – Stollens ausgeleitet. ​ Situation Schöpfbaue im Frauenholz – Stollen um 1654: Insgesamt 15 Schöpfbaue in Betrieb. Streubel-, Seutzen-, Hanns Georg Jünger-, Jungen Kessenhüller-, Johann Philibert-, Seeau-, Hölzl-, Seywalder-, Metzler-, Schweibelmayr -, Jesuiter-, Pruklacher-, Soltinger-, Harrach- und Spitzel – Bau. Auf der gegen Osten („Morgen“) ausgelängten Hauptschachtricht befanden sich 8 Schöpfbaue, nämlich der Seutzen-, Hanns Georg Jünger-, Jungen Kessenhüller-, Johann Philibert-, Seeau-, Hölzl-, Seywalder- und Metzler – Bau, welche sich mit dem Streubel – Bau vereinigten und später unter dem Namen der Streubel und Seutzen – Wehr zu einem Ablaswerk vorgerichtet wurden. Hinter dem Metzler – Bau lag links die Kufstein – Kehr, auf welcher der mit dem Metzler – Bau zusammengeschnittene Schweibelmayr – Bau lag. Auf der von der Hauptschachtricht links gelegenen Kapuziner – Kehr lag der Jesuiter – Bau, ihr Feldort stand in tauben Gebirge. In der Fortsetzung der Hauptschachtricht befanden sich der Pruklacher-, Soltinger- und Harrach – Bau, welche in der Folge mit dem Jesuiter- und Spitzel – Bau vereinigten, unter dem Namen Porg – Wehr zu einem Ablaswerk vorgerichtet und benützt wurden. Die Porg – Wehr wurde bis zu einem 1745 erfolgten Einbruch süßer Tagwässer betrieben. Weiter hinten lag der vom Neubergstollen abgebaute Einwässerungs – Schurf, auch Registrator v. Riethaler Schurf genannt, welcher die Hauptschachtricht des Neuberg – Stollens mit der alten Hauptschachtricht des Frauenholz – Stollens verband. 1637 wurden anstatt des baufälligen Holzgebäudes am Frauenholz – Stollen ein Berghaus und eine Schmiede errichtet. 1707 waren im Frauenholz – Stollen 15 Schöpfbaue in Betrieb. Zur Erleichterung der Soleförderung war deren Vereinigung in zwei Damm - Wehren zu 70 und 50 Stuben Fassungsraum ( 17.115m³ und 12.225m³) geplant. Die Umstellung des Laugbetriebes hatte sich verzögert, weil der unterliegende, zum Abfluss der Sole benötigte Amalia – Stollen erst 1687 eröffnet wurde. 1707 rügte die Starhembergsche – Kommission erneut scharf den Vortrieb eines Untersuchungsbaues als Fortsetzung der Hauptschachtricht im Frauenholz – Stollen 300 Stabel (358,5m) über die Salzgrenze hinaus ins Taube. Die Aussichtslosigkeit dieses Vortriebes wurde durch eine Tagvermessung nachgewiesen, denn oberhalb dieser Strecke stand eine hochragende Felswand. Als die sich im Frauenholz – Stollen befindliche Streubel – und Seutzen – Wehr 1729 zusammengeschnitten war, ereignete sich 1738 in der Streubel – Wehr ein Werksniedergang. Dabei drang eine große Menge Süßwasser in die Wehr ein. Am 16 April 1738 wurde in einer Beschau beschlossen, einen Hauerschlag zur Aufsuchung des Süßwassers in der Streubel – Wehr auszuführen, und dieses, wenn gefasst wäre, durch einen Schurf in den Kaiserin Amalia – Stollen auf die Springer – Kehr zu leiten, und von dort schadlos auszuleiten. Dieser Vorschlag konnte jedoch nicht ausgeführt werden, weil das Wasser überraschend aus dem Deckgebirge oberhalb der Wehr zufloss und nicht gefasst werden konnte. Zur Fassung des Wasserzutrittes in die Streubel – Wehr wurde 1738 ein neuer Wasser – Stollen mit Wasserfassungsstrecken („Seitenöffen“) am Reinfalz und die Verlängerung des Rinnwerks zwischen den Bergen vorgenommen. Obschon mit dem 54m langen, in 1.030m Seehöhe angesetzten neuen Stollen („Mittlerer Wasserberg – Stollen“) einiges Wasser erbaut wurde, erreichte man doch nicht den damit erhofften Erfolg, weil das Süßwasser noch immer in die Streubel – Wehr eindrang. Erst 1769 konnte durch den im Lipplesgraben – Stollen angelegten Wasser – Schurf der Süßwasserzutritt endgültig gefasst und abgeleitet werden. Da der „Mittlere Wasserberg – Stollen“ mit den tiefer angelegten Stollen keine Verbindung hatte, wurde er 1816 wieder aufgelassen. Dadurch konnten die Rüstkosten, die zur Instandhaltung des im druckhaften Gebirge angelegten Stollens nötig waren, eingespart werden. Das gemauerte Berghaus, in dem sich die Bergkanzlei befand, wurde 1740 erweitert. Im Jahr 1781 wurde aber das Berghaus beim Frauenholz – Stollen wieder abgebrochen und die dort wohnenden Arbeiter in das Berghaus beim Kaiserin Elisabeth – Stollen und sowie in jenes beim Kaiserin Maria Ludovika – Stollen umgesiedelt. Situation Wehren im Frauenholz – Stollen um 1800: Länge vom Mundloch bis zur Salzgrenze 428 Stabel (510,2m), von da bis zum Feldort 372 Stabel (443,4m). Er hat 1 Kehr mit insgesamt 4 Wehren, davon 2 brauchbare und 2 unbrauchbare Wehren. Um 1820 war nur mehr der vordere Teil der Frauenholz Stollen – Hauptschachtricht vom Mundloch bis zum Wasser – Umbau befahrbar, sowie im rückwärtigen Teil der morgenseitigen Hauptschachtricht die Strecke vom Wimmer – Ebenschurf bis zum Vasold – Schurf (beide Schürfe vom Frauenholz – in den Amalia – Stollen), die aus Bewetterungsgründen offengehalten werden musste. Situation Wehren im Frauenholz – Stollen um 1850: Insgesamt 5 Wehren (um 1850 alle totgesprochen); Erlach - Wehr, Lang - Wehr, Porg - Wehr, Streubel - und Seutzen - Wehr (verschnitten). 1933 wurden im Zuge der Umlegung der Einwässerungs – Strecken die Frauenholz Stollen – Hauptschachtricht, der Kössler – Umbau sowie der Schmidl – Schurf (Frauenholz – auf Amalia – Stollen) stillgelegt. Verwendete Quellen: Carl Schraml „Das oberösterreichische Salinenwesen vom Beginne des 16. Bis zur Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts“, Wien 1932 Carl Schraml „Das oberösterreichische Salinenwesen von 1750 bis zur Zeit nach den Franzosenkriegen“, Wien 1934 Carl Schraml „Das oberösterreichische Salinenwesen von 1818 bis zum Ende des Salzamtes 1850“, Wien 1936 August Aigner „Der Salzbergbau in den österreichischen Alpen“, Berg- und Hüttenmännisches Jahrbuch, Wien 1892 Leopold Schiendorfer „Perneck – Ein Dorf im Wandel der Zeit“, Linz 2006 Johann Steiner „Der Reisegefährte durch die Oberösterreichische Schweiz“, Linz 1820, Reprint Gmunden 1981 Georg Kanzler „Ischls Chronik“, Ischl 1881, Reprint Bad Ischl 1983 Michael Kefer „Beschreibung Hauptkarten des kk Salzberges zu Ischl“, 1820, Transkription Michael Nussbaumer, Stand 13.09.2016 Anton Dicklberger „Systematische Geschichte der Salinen Oberösterreichs“, I. Band, Ischl 1807, Transkription Thomas Nussbaumer

  • Moore VIA SALIS: Einzigartige Biotope

    Moore, water, salt: A relationship with rough edges. Somewhat hidden to the east of the Ischler Salzberg are the high moors of Langmoos and Roßstallmoos , which have been brought out of their "sleeping beauty" by the Austrian Federal Forests with the "Moor Protection Program" in recent years. Although these are not part of the Via Salis network of paths, they were important for the Ischler Salzberg. 1 Location of Langmoos and Roßstallmoos: The two nature reserves Langmoos (2.6 ha) and Roßstallmoos (1 ha) are located 1 and 1.4 km east of the Reinfalzalm. Both moors are high moors that arose in karst depressions. They are supplied by precipitation and are therefore independent of groundwater. The peat layer is up to 6 m thick. Compass hiking map, 2020 2 History of the formation of our moors: ​ In the not too distant past, 20,000 years ago, large glaciers stretched out from the Trauntal into the foothills of the Alps and buried the country under ice. Glaciers were instrumental in creating the conditions that led to the growth of peat bogs in our country. They dug out shallow basins and brought back glacial rubble (the finest rock debris) that was deposited there and formed clays impermeable to water. As a result, the water collected in the pools and various forms of still waters were created, from small ponds to large lakes. When the climate improved about 17,000 years ago, the ice receded and the glaciers disintegrated relatively quickly. Clay-lined hollows with small still waters remained; outside of the formerly glaciated areas gravel, sand and loess-covered terraces. Various mosses, sedges and reeds soon settled in the hollows. The late glacial, still cool climate with low evaporation and high humidity played an important role. Schematic structure of raised bog, ÖBF 3 Moore as a habitat for rare plants and animals Moors are an irreplaceable habitat for many animal and plant species that have become rare today. Quite a few "moor dwellers" are on the Red List, such as the sundew, the cranberry or the dwarf birch. Typical of their fauna are the moor dragonfly and moor frog as well as numerous reptiles such as mountain lizards, adders, butterflies and spiders. Sparrige peat moss, WIKIPEDIA Moor tot bug, WIKIPEDIA Warty peat moss, WIKIPEDIA 4 Moore as a climate protector Moore fulfill the function of CO2 storage very well. Since the plant components do not decompose in the wet, acidic soil, the carbon remains stored. Only when the moors are drained does a decomposition process begin and the positive effect achieved over thousands of years is reversed again. 5 Moors as water reservoirs Bogs can absorb up to 95% of their dry mass in water. During dry periods, they slowly release the stored water. In this way, they contribute to the continuous supply of the springs. When it rains, the moor does not absorb large amounts of water. This fulfilled an important function as flood protection. 6 Moor protection program ÖBF On the occasion of the "Year of Wetlands" proclaimed by the Ministry of the Environment in 1993, the Austrian Federal Forests placed all of their moors under protection. In June 2000, as part of the WWF campaign "Let them live", the ÖBf and WWF signed the cooperation agreement for "active moor protection". According to this, bogs that had been adversely affected in the past primarily by drainage, peat extraction, grazing and afforestation are to be actively renatured. Such as: construction of dams to raise the moor water level in Langmoos. Revitalization of Langmoos, ÖBF Leckenmoos, ÖBF Larch dam in Langmoos, ÖBF 7 The importance of these moors and the surface waters in the Reinfalz area for the Ischler Salzberg: ​ In the 1830s and 1840s, after the Napoleonic Wars and the beginning of industrialization, the need was great. It was the Biedermeier period, monarchical absolutism prevailed. Resignation spread, hunger demonstrations and peasant uprisings shook Austria. And in these difficult times, there was almost a catastrophe on the Ischler Salzberg: ​ The surface waters in the Reinfalzalm area have always been a problem for the salt tunnels below. A lot of attention has therefore already been paid to this fact. But not enough. And so the tragedy took its course: As early as 1739 , a wooden drainage system, which was laid out "between the mountains" (path from Reinfalzalm to Hütteneckalm), was extended to the Reinfalzalm. In addition, as early as 1738, a water tunnel, the Mittlerer Wasserstollen, was laid to drain off freshwater that had already penetrated to the Frauenholzstollen. With little success, as it turned out. It was not until 1769 that the access to the water was successfully contained by the water digging in the Lipplesgraben tunnel. ​ Drainage plan Reinfalz 1854, archive Salinen Austria 1739: Freshwater inrush up to the Frauenholz tunnel, archive Salinen Austria ​ In 1775, 1784, 1793, 1799 and 1805 the wooden drainage system was renewed and expanded again and again. A major repair of the then 2,133.54 m long main and side channels, partly made of slats and partly consisting of wooden channels, was carried out in the years 1830 - 1831 . As can be seen from these years, maintenance was a very expensive one. Therefore, from 1840 onwards, the gutters were made of ashlars . Block channel system Reinfalz April 2020, IGM Restored cuboid gutter "Between the mountains" June 2020, IGM Despite all these measures, it came in 1839 in the Amalia tunnel to massive fractures of the workers Preßel, Schwaiger, Rappan and Baron Sternbach. ​ In 1843 , the water that had broken in as a result of the demise of the workers Erlach, Mohr and Freund had already penetrated the Ludovica tunnel in such large quantities that the lye could soon no longer have been accommodated in the workers who were still available. The entire mining area was endangered! These events and the underground measures are presented in detail under this link: https://www.viasalis.at/amaliastollen . 1839 and 1843 factory declines and water ingress up to the Ludovica tunnel, archive Salinen Austria In order to save the Ischler Salzberg, of course, attempts were also made during the day to regulate all the water that had not yet been controlled. Now the work on the bogs has also started! Main and side drainage ditches were dug in Langmoos . And as mentioned in Chapter 2, the Langmoos is located in a trough. In order to be able to drain the entire tub, a 50 m long drainage tunnel was even built. In the attached plan, it is very nicely marked as a "warm hole" . The name has the following meaning: Quite in the middle of the tunnel, a stepped shaft was surprisingly cut , which shows a natural draft. There is an entrance 255 m below, namely the "Tauernwasserloch". In winter, air draws in below, heats up and steams up in the "Warm Hole" off. The "Warm Hole" was also a research project of the Linzer Höhlenverein for many years. They use the "Lipplesgraben - Hütte" at the Lipplesgraben - tunnel as a base for this. This hut was built in 1892 as a lodging hut for workers maintaining the gully and was used until the 1950's. Plan Langmoos with drainage ditches and drainage tunnel "Warmes Loch" 1860, archive Salinen Austria Entrance Hütterschacht in the "warm hole", archive IGM clean fold ramp ​ In addition to the Langmoos, the Reinfalzschanze was also drained. This field designation, which has now been forgotten, extended to the SW of the Lower Rosenkogel, as can be seen on the following map from 1867. ​ A small digression on the name Schanze: In earlier times, a hill fort meant a field fortification for defense. From the 16th century, the word "schanzen" was generally applied to any kind of earthwork. And therefore probably also on the drainage work SW of the Niederen Rosenkogel. This is probably where the name Reinfalzschanze came from. Drainage plan Reinfalzschanze 1854, archive Salinen Austria Work on the gutter then happened in the years 1890, 1892, 1894, 1896, 1898, 1902, 1904 and 1907. Through all this work on the gutter made of ashlar stones, the same now had a length of 864.7 m with an average width of 0. 45 - 0.50 m. From 1913 to 1919 another 155 m of the wooden gutter were replaced by cement gutters: ​ Plan Rinnwerk Reinfalz 1907, archive Salinen Austria Despite all measures above and below ground, there were also large-scale landslides in the Reinfalzalm area up to the twentieth century , as can be seen on a map from 1933: Archive Salinen Austria 1933 Landslides in the years 1924 / 1925 / 1926 / 1927 / 1931. With marked water ingress into the Wolfen weir (Amalia - tunnel), water ingress into the Streibel weir (Amalia - tunnel), water ingress onto the Neuhauser Kehr (Lipplesgraben - tunnel). Sources used: Carl Schraml "The Upper Austrian Salt Works from 1818 to the end of the Salt Office in 1850", Vienna 1936 Michael Kefer "Description of the main maps of the kk Salzberg zu Ischl", 1820, transcription by Thomas Nussbaumer, as of September 13, 2016 Geological Federal Institute, sheet 96 Bad Ischl, 2012 Reports of the Bavarian Botanical Society 87: 55-70, 2017 Moor revitalization of the Inner Salzkammergut, ÖBF

  • 11 a Hoher Wasserstollen | glueckauf

    11 a High water tunnel Stud Name: "High Water Gallery" Struck: 1689 Leave: 1766 Length: 40 m water tunnel (total drive 243 m) Altitude: 1,114m In 1689 the Hoher Wasserstollen was struck in order to be able to examine the part of the salt dome assumed to be above the Lipplesgraben tunnel. This was the highest tunnel ever driven on the Ischler Salzberg. The Hoher Wasserstollen was installed in the so-called "Fleck" at the foot of the Niederer Rosenkogel. However, since the same was built too high, the salt mountains, which do not reach far up the Lipplesgraben tunnel, were completely run over. It therefore did not live up to its purpose as a hope for salt and the tunnel soon fell into disrepair. High water tunnel, pit plan Michael Kefer, 1829, Upper Austrian Provincial Archive The main shaft was initially in gravel rock, then in gypsum and limestone, its total length was 204 rods (243.2 m). In 1757, 34 bars (40 m) of the main shaft were brought back into a navigable position and used to divert surface water. Since the daily water used was insignificant and did not increase even in heavy rain, the Hoher Wasserstollen was completely abandoned in 1766 and from that point on it was left to decay. High water tunnel, location in the slide area, 1927, Archiv Salinen Austria High water tunnel, landslide, around 1930, archive Salinen Austria The exact location of the Hoher Wasserstollen can no longer be precisely determined today, since extensive subsidence and landslides occurred in the entire area as a result of factory collapses from 1924 onwards. By 1927, an area of more than 9,500 m² was in motion. The attachment point of the high water tunnel was also affected. ​ Sources used: Michael Kefer "Description and explanation of the main maps kk Salzberg zu Ischel", 1820, transcription by Thomas Nussbaumer, as of September 13, 2016

  • viasalis Bad Ischl

    experience history Via Salis ways of salt Salt has been mined in Bad Ischl since 1563. Historical tunnel entrances, the mountain church, miners' houses, the former Schaffersag and other localities can on Via Salis be visited.... Continue reading Bad Ischl and the salt The blessing of the coveted mineral salt lay over the entire Salzkammergut. Hence the name, which is made up of the words Kammergut and Salz... Continue reading IGM Interest group Mitterbergstollen Between 2013 and 2018, the "Interessengemeinschaft Mitterbergstollen" ( IGM ) restored a total of 12 tunnel portals at considerable expense... Continue reading NEWS Project: Saving the historic saw at the Maria Theresia tunnel No posts published in this language yet Once posts are published, you’ll see them here.

  • 06 Ludovikastollen | glueckauf

    06 Der Kaiserin Ludovika- Stollen Stollenname: „Kaiserin Maria Theresia – Stollen“ bis 11. Juni 1808 „Kaiserin Maria Ludovika – Stollen“ ab 11. Juni 1808 Dritte Gattin von Kaiser Franz II., Heirat am 04.01.1808 in Wien Angeschlagen: 1747 Länge: 1.013 m Seehöhe: 764 m Der Kaiserin Maria Theresia – Stollen wurde 1747 eröffnet. Dieser wurde aber nach der von Befahrung Ihrer Allerhöchsten kk Majestäten am 11. Juni 1808 in Kaiserin Maria Ludovika –Stollen umbenannt. Der Kaiserin Maria Ludovika – Stollen wurde exakt 48 Höhenmeter unterm Kaiserin Elisabeth – Stollen angelegt. Es waren 1013 m taubes Gestein zu durchörtern bis man an das begehrte Salz gelangte. Bei einer Vortriebsleistung von etwa 30 Laufmeter pro Jahr im Dreischichtbetrieb ein langwieriges Unterfangen. Um die Bauführung der Ludovika Stollen – Hauptschachtricht zu beschleunigen wurden zwei Gegenbaue angelegt. Der Erste wurde vom Solinger Schurf aus tagwärts angegangen, wobei bereits 1752 der Durchschlag gemacht werden konnte. Der Zweite wurde vom Ablass der Monsperg – Wehr tagwärts und vom Sollinger Schurf bergwärts angelegt; 1761 trafen die beiden Vortriebe glücklich zusammen. Ein Stück oberhalb des Stollens am Wiesenrand steht das monumentale „Obere“ oder „Ludovika – Berghaus“, erbaut 1769. Es ist das älteste noch erhaltene Berghaus am Ischler Salzberg. Der Betriebsstandort für den Abbau des Pernecker Salzlagers wurde 1769 zum Ludovika – Stollen verlegt, wo er bis 1884 verbleibt. Wegen des rolligen, mit schiebenden Tonschichten durchsetzten Gebirges konnten gut 34 Stabel (41m) der Ludovika Stollen – Hauptschachtricht vom Mundloch bergwärts trotz massiver Verzimmerung nicht offengehalten werden. 1791 kam es zu massiven Verbrüchen der Hauptschachtricht in diesem Streckenabschnitt. Da das neu errichtete Berghaus nur 17 Stabel (20,3m) oberhalb der verstürzten Stollenachse lag, drohte dieses einzusinken. Als Sicherungsmaßnahme wurde die Hauptschachtricht unterhalb des Berghauses komplett verstürzt und 1792 eine 80 Stabel (95,4m) lange Umbaustrecke in Gegenbauführung errichtet. Situation der Wehren im Maria Theresia – Stollen, später Ludovika – Stollen um 1800: Länge vom Mundloch bis zur Salzgrenze 835 Stabel (995,3m), von da bis zum Feldort 477 Stabel (568,6m). 2 Kehren mit 9 brauchbaren Wehren. Die immer größer werdende Bedeutung des Ischler Salzberges brachte immer wieder hohe und höchste Persönlichkeiten in diesen Winkel des Kammergutes. Am bekanntesten waren wohl die Besuche Kaiser Franz I. mit seiner Gemahlin Ludovika und mehreren Erzherzögen mit der Befahrung des Kaiserin Ludovika Stollens in den Jahren 1808 und 1814. Der Ischler Bergmeister Anton Dicklberger verfasste Denksprüche, die auf den Granitpyramiden des Kaiserin Ludovika – Stollens verewigt wurden. ​ Erinnerung an den Kaiser – Besuch 1808 am Sockel der linken Pyramide: Franz und Loiße. Sie befuhren, Diese Berges innern Schoß, Wo die Hoheit Segensspuren, In des Salzes Fülle goß, Lang leb in Glanz und Freuden, Unser hohes Kaiserpaar, Lang blüh in späteren Zeiten, Dieser Salzberg immerdar. Erinnerung an den Kaiser – Besuch 1814 am Sockel der rechten Pyramide: Franz der Beste aller Väter, Deutschlands Stolz, Europens Retter, der des Feindes Macht gedämpft, und Friedenspsalm erkämpft, ist mit Anton und Theresen, Ferdinanden hier gewesen.“ Anno Dom. MDCCCXIV Die Aufstellung der Pyramiden vor dem Stollenmundloch wurde durch einen Erlass der k. k. Hofkammer vom 1. Juni 1818 mit einem Kostenaufwand von 322 fl. 53 kr. bewilligt. Ursprünglich befanden sich auf den beiden Pyramiden noch 2 vergoldete Kaiserkronen mit Szepter und Schwert, die auf Polster ruhten. Sie dürften vor 1900 abmontiert worden sein. Das Abbaufeld blieb im Ludovika Stollen unverändert klein, wenige 100m lang und nur 50 bis 60m breit, so dass nur eine Reihe Solegewinnungswerke angelegt werden konnte. Außerdem wechselte die Reichhaltigkeit des Salzgebirges noch stark. 1839 mussten viele Werker totgesprochen oder in Feier gestellt werden, um das Tiefergreifen des Niederganges im Amalia – Horizont zu vermeiden. Die Chotek – Kehr im Ludovika – Stollen sowie der Poniatovsky – Schurf vom Elisabeth – auf den Ludovika – Stollen mussten zur Ableitung der Raubwässer, die über die Ludovika Stollen – Hauptschachtricht austraten, gesichert werden. Zur besseren Beherrschung der Wasserzutritte wurden ab 1840 die ersten Grubenmauerungen am Ischler Salzberg im Ludovika – Stollen ausgeführt. 1843 war das eingebrochene, auf dem Wege durch das Haselgebirge halbsatt gewordene Wasser über die Schürfe schon auf die Chotek – Kehr im Ludovika – Stollen in so großer Menge vorgedrungen, dass die halbgrädige Sole in den noch verfügbaren Einschlagwerken fast nicht mehr Platz gefunden hätte. Situation der Wehren im Kaiserin Ludovika – Stollen um 1850: Insgesamt 10 Wehren, davon 8 totgesprochen und 2 brauchbar. Nagel - und Grünwald - Wehr (verschnitten), Nefzern - Wehr, Zinsendorf - Wehr, Erzherzog Karl - Wehr, Lemberg - und Sollinger - Wehr (verschnitten), Schiller – Wehr; Stuppan – Wehr und Lebenau - Wehr um 1850 noch in Betrieb. Die Fremdenbefahrung führte von ca. 1800 bis 1934 über den Ludovika – in den Josef – Stollen. Vom Stollenmundloch ging man entweder zu Fuß auf dem Gestänge oder man ließ sich in den zu kleinen Wägelchen hergerichteten Grubenhunten in den Berg hineinschieben. Zur Befahrung wurden die Grubenhunte ordentlich zusammengerichtet, einige sogar mit Laternen versehen. Als Mannschaft ging ein Leuchtmann voraus, daneben ein Ziehender, und je nach Gewichtsverhältnis ein oder zwei nachschiebende Bergleute. Seit ca. 1800 war für die Fremdenbefahrung die Erzherzog Karl - Wehr vorgesehen, die 30 Klafter (56,9m) lang, und 25 Klafter (47,4m) breit war, sowie über 60 000 Eimer (3.400m³) Sole fasste. In der Abbaukammer konnten alle Manipulationszweige der Salzgewinnung besichtigt werden. Der Befahrungsweg erfolgte über die Ludovika – Stollen Hauptschachtricht und die Chotek – Kehr in die Erzherzog Karl – Wehr, dann wieder über zurück die Chotek – Kehr zum Lemberger – Schurf, der in den Josef – Stollen hinunterführte. Über die Josef Stollen – Hauptschachtricht fuhr man wieder aus. Die Gesamtlänge des Führungsweges lag bei rund 3.500m. Am 5. März 1934 wurde der vordere Teil des Ludovika – Stollens sowie der Lemberger – Schurf vom Ludovika – in den Josef – Stollen zum letzten Mal befahren, da diese Grubenstrecken infolge Umlegung des Fremdenweges in den Maria Theresia – Stollen aufgelassen wurden. Verwendete Quellen: Carl Schraml „Das oberösterreichische Salinenwesen von 1750 bis zur Zeit nach den Franzosenkriegen“, Wien 1934 Carl Schraml „Das oberösterreichische Salinenwesen von 1818 bis zum Ende des Salzamtes 1850“, Wien 1936 Ischler Heimatverein „Bad Ischl Heimatbuch 2004“, Bad Ischl 2004 Leopold Schiendorfer „Perneck – Ein Dorf im Wandel der Zeit“, Linz 2006 Johann Steiner „Der Reisegefährte durch die Oberösterreichische Schweiz“, Linz 1820, Reprint Gmunden 1981 Georg Kanzler „Ischls Chronik“, Ischl 1881, Reprint Bad Ischl 1983 Michael Kefer „Beschreibung Hauptkarten des kk Salzberges zu Ischl“, 1820, Transkription Thomas Nussbaumer, Stand 13.09.2016 Restored tunnel portal 24.8.2019: Ludovikastollen Congratulations to the Ischler Heimatverein and many thanks to the companies involved and all supporters.

  • Kunstgüterbergung im Ischler Salzberg | glueckauf

    Dark moments at the Ischler Salzberg: art objects salvage 1944/45 Inhalt: ​ 1. Ischler Salzberg wird Bergungsort 2. Einlagerungsorte 3. Eingelagerte Kunstschätze 4. Erste Entführung 5. Zweite Entführung 6. Sperre der Bergung im Ischler Salzberg 7. Die Befreiung ​ ​ Franz Juraschek, the regional conservator responsible for the Upper Danube and later the provincial conservator for Upper Austria during World War II, suggested the Ischler Salzberg as well as Aussee as a salvage site for endangered art treasures. ​ Juraschek and Hans Dellbrügge, District President in Vienna, turned to the Erbstollen near Bad Ischl, particularly after the Aussee salt mine had become the “ Reich’s salvage site ” and especially for objects in the “ Fuhrer Museum” in Linz. wird Bergungsort Kaiser Franz Josef – Erbstollen, transport of art, 1944, archive Salinen Austria Kunstgütertransport, 1944, Archiv Salinen Austria 2. Einlagerungsorte: ​ ​ Für die Einlagerungen waren vorhandene und neue Bergungsräume im Erbstollen und im I. und II. Blindhorizont vorgesehen. Der I. und II. Blindhorizont wurden über den Distler Schacht vom Erbstollen und von Perneck, vom Leopoldstollen, erreicht. Aufgrund der leichteren Anlieferung zum Erbstollen wurden alle Einlagerungen über diesen durchgeführt. Einlagerungsorte ​ Im I. Blindhorizont wurde das Werk XII mit 1100 Quadratmeter für Einlagerungen freigegeben. Plan Bergung: I. Blindhorizont 1944, Bundesarchiv Deutschland Ein neuer Lagerraum wurde für Einlagerungen im Erbstollen bei Streckenmeter 250 ausgesprengt. Dieser war aber nicht durchlüftet und nicht im Salzstock angelegt und deshalb feucht! Dieser wäre für großformatige Einlagerungen des Sonderstabes Rosenberg, Führersammlung, vorgesehen gewesen. Reimer, Sonderbeauftragter Hitlers, verzichtete aber danach auf diese Räume und ermöglichte somit die Einlagerung der Wiener Sammlungen. Außerdem wurde das Sprengmitteldepot bei Streckenmeter 500 geräumt und für Einlagerungen freigegeben. Plan Bergung: Neue Bergungsräume und frühere Sprengmitteldepot im Erbstollen 1944, Bundesarchiv Deutschland Im II. Blindhorizont wurde der sogenannte Bahnhof, der zum Verschub der Grubenbahn diente, für die Bergung vorbereitet. Ein vom I. zum II. Blindhorizont führender Schurf, wurde später verschüttet, damit niemand ungebeten die Lagerräume erreichen konnte. Anfang 1945 war der „Bahnhof“ so verkleidet, dass nur ein Gleis frei blieb. Der übrige Raum war für die Lagerung von Gemälden vorgesehen. Er wurde an beiden Enden mit schweren hölzernen Bohlentüren verschlossen. Das machte den Eingang absolut sicher. Nur die Lüftungsrohre blieben frei. Plan Bergung: II. Blindhorizont 1944, Bundesarchiv Deutschland Salvage plan, 1944 Archive Salinen Austria Shaft machine Distlerschacht: All art objects were made with it transported to the second blind horizon, 1940 Archive Salinen Austria In der Endphase des Krieges wurden auch Lagerbereiche in der Ischler Saline verwendet: Zum Beispiel wurden am 27.3.1945 Bilder von Cassone aus der Sammlung Lanzkoronski hier eingelagert. Zur Vorgeschichte der Sammlung Lanzkoronski: Das Vermögen und auch die hochbedeutende Kunstsammlung des polnischen Staatsangehörigen Anton Lanzkoronski wurde unter Berufung auf eine “Verordnung über Behandlung von Vermögen der Angehörigen des ehemaligen polnischen Staates” beschlagnahmt und vom zuständigen Staatskommissar in Wien übernommen. Im ehemaligen Hotel Grüner Baum, Bad Ischl, wurden zu Kriegsende Kunstgüter aus Altausse eingelagert, um der befürchteten Zerstörung zu entgehen. Ein anderes Lager war die Villa Castiglioni am Grundlsee: hier wurde ein Teil der Bibliothek Hitlers eingelagert. Schloss Kogl bei Attersee war ein Lagerort für Kunstgüter, die Alfred Rosenberg für sich selbst reserviert hatte. From November 1944 it was decided to store the Viennese art collections and the Lichtenstein picture gallery in the Ischler Salzberg . The daily reports from Lauffen began on December 9, 1944 with the arrival of the restorers Josef Hajsinek from Vienna and Franz Sochor from Kremsmünster. The first transport arrived in Lauffen on December 12, 1944. Almost all Viennese collections relocated salvaged goods to Lauffen. Gert Adriani was appointed head of the salvage. But after a fatal mishap, he was replaced by Viktor Luithlen , head of the collection of ancient musical instruments. This remained so until the end of the repatriation in 1947. Eingelagerte Kunstschätze Gert Adriani, KHM Museum Association Viktor Luithlen , KHM Museum Association Storage of the art objects 1944/45: Kaiser Franz Josef – Erbstollen, Kunstgütertransport, 1944/45, Archiv Alois Lackner, Lauffen Kaiser Franz Josef – Erbstollen, Kunstgütertransport, 1944/45, Archiv Alois Lackner, Lauffen Kaiser Franz Josef – Erbstollen, art goods transport, 1944/45, archive Salinen Austria Kaiser Franz Josef – Erbstollen, Kunstgütertransport, 1944/45, Archiv Alois Lackner, Lauffen Kunstgutdepot 2. Blindhorizont, 1986, Katharina Hammer Shine in the dark Valuable holdings from spiritual possessions were now also stored in the Ischler Erbstollen instead of in the Ausseer Salzberg. One transport after the other arrived from Vienna. Treasures came from almost all state collections: there were 150 boxes from the national library with manuscripts and printed works, each individual page of which is a treasure. Holdings from the Natural History Museum, the Ethnological Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts, the Art History Museum, the Liechtenstein Gallery and the Graz State Archives were delivered. ​ Pictures by such important artists as Rembrandt, Raffael, Brueghel, Albrecht Dürer, Jan van Eyck, Rubens and also by "modern" painters such as Munch, Monet, Klimt and Kokoschka were stored in Ischl. In addition, the gold treasure finds, ivories, vases, jewelery and statuettes from the antique collections. ​ A small selection of the priceless art objects stored in the Ischler Salzberg: Tower of Babel Pieter Bruegel the Elder , 1563 Venus of Willendorf, around 30,000 years old peasant dance Pieter Bruegel the Elder , 1525/30 Requiem in D minor ( KV 626) from 1791 is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's last composition Madonna in the green Raphael Santi , 1505-1506 Tassilo chalice from the year 777 The “Tassilokelch” from Kremsmünster Abbey also had a special situation: ​ Officially it was housed in the Aussee salvage, but after this became the official salvage location for Hitler in 1943, it was secretly stored in the Ischler Salzberg by district conservator Franz Juraschek. On April 18, 1945, a crisis team met in the general management of the saltworks to discuss the measures that were necessary to save the Ischler salvage from having to store a bomb like the one in Aussee. According to this plan, the salvage should be made completely inaccessible. The "filling point" of the Distler shaft in the Erbstollen should be completely filled up with rock, "collapsed". The elevator is to be pulled up to the ceiling of the Leopold horizon, i.e. to its highest point, and shut down there. The stairs that lead up next to the elevator, the so-called "rides", are to be torn out below and above the I. and II. underground constructions and the burial of the pit between the I. and II. underground constructions is to be strengthened. This work was completed by May 5, 1945. ​ In the meantime, the situation in Ischl / Lauffen has also deteriorated dramatically. Between April 20 and 25, 1945, a total of 928 pictures of various origins from Kartause Gaming (Lower Austria) arrived here. On the orders of Hermann Stuppäck (General Cultural Officer of the Reich Governor Baldur von Schirach) in Gaming, the paintings had been thrown in a hurry "without any consideration and without the slightest care". Due to the "barbaric" nature of the transport, numerous paintings "were perforated, torn off, damp or otherwise damaged in Bad Ischl/Lauffen. But that was not all, Stuppäck arrived in Bad Ischl on April 25 with orders from Schirach to move the salvaged goods kept in Lauffen further west without delay. At first Luithlen successfully resisted the order, but the arrival of officers and soldiers from the "Fabian Combat Unit" from the SS Panzer Division "Großdeutschland" on the evening of May 1st made any further delay impossible. Captain Reinhardt and Lieutenant Kahles would not be put off. ​ Bergrat Lepez refused the SS commander to provide the mine locomotive, the winding machine and the miners on the pretext that there was no corresponding clear written order from the Waffen SS command. Under threat of the use of weapons, the captain drove furiously to Gmunden to obtain the necessary powers of attorney. This saved valuable time again. ​ On May 3rd, however, the 184 paintings desired by Schirach and Stuppäck - including all paintings by Rembrandt, P. Bruegel the Elder, had to be handed over. Ä., Titians and Velazquez, 49 tapestry sacks and two crates are loaded onto trucks. It turned out that a whole series of the main pieces from the Viennese picture gallery were to be kidnapped in this way. Among them were Bruegel's "Peasant Wedding" and "Peasant Fair", "Carnival Games", "Tower of Babel", "Homecoming of the Herd", "Storm at Sea", "Bird Thief" and "Pauli's Conversion", 6 Velasquez -Pictures, 7 Titians, including the cherries and the Gypsy Madonna, as well as the portrait of Jacopo della Strada, the two well-known self-portraits and the reading Titus by Rembrandt, and finally the "All Saints' Day" and "Emperor Maximilian" by Dürer. So you can safely say, not only the most valuable, but also a number of the most popular pictures in their gallery. ​ You worked late into the night. The marching orders were given on May 4th. At 4 a.m. the convoy with the restorers Hajsinek and Sochor left Bad Ischl in the direction of Mittersill. In the evening of the same day, the convoy arrived in Bramberg in the Pinzgau region of Salzburg, where Stuppäck was already awaiting the transport. But the odyssey of the art treasures was not over yet. The very next day, Major Fabian ordered the paintings, boxes and tapestry sacks to be loaded onto the trucks. The transport could only be accompanied by officers. Franz Sochor and Josef Hajsinek stayed in Bramberg, where they contacted the advancing American army and reported the incident. All cultural assets were then found by the Americans in St. Johann in Tirol. ​ The final result of the Ischl salvage was: 8 figures, 1428 paintings, 122 sacks with tapestries, 278 folder boxes with cadastral maps and 728 boxes. A total of 150 tons of salvage. ​ On May 13, 1945, US troops arrived in Bad Ischl and took control of the salvage site. ​ On June 1, 1945, with the permission of the occupiers, the work to uncover the treasures in the salt mine could also begin, namely in the Erbstollen and in Plant XII in the I. underground construction. The II. civil engineering was initially still buried, but its opening was tackled soon afterwards. On June 13, 1945, the main salvage at the "Bahnhof" in II. Civil Engineering was accessible again. The salvage proved to be in excellent condition, with the exception of a lost painting, a bouquet of flowers by Jan Brueghel the Elder. Ä., which later reappeared in a private apartment in Munich and returned to the Kunsthistorisches Museum in 1959 after a court decision. Rosenberg Erste Entführung Zweite Entführung Sperre Befreiung Am 11. Juli 1945 erschien „Monuments Man“ Lieutenant Frederick Shrady in Bad Ischl und kündigte an, dass die im ehemaligen Hotel Grüner Baum , Grazerstraße Nr. 39, und in der Kaiservilla gelagerten Objekte, nach München zum „Central Collection Point“ gebracht werden würden. Lieutenant Frederick Shrady, Internet On August 7, 1946, the first major transport back from Ischl to Vienna for an exhibition in Switzerland took place. ​ On April 25, 1947, the last large transport of art goods left the Ischl salt mine. After checking the rooms in the presence of the gendarmerie commander, the final commissioning took place and the salt works management took over sole supervision of the mountain again. The salvage in Lauffen took place without any major losses or damage. Only the loss of 7 paintings for the Kunsthistorisches Museum had to be lamented, which are still considered lost today: Landscape by Nicolaes Berchem (GG 623), The Painter Jan Wildens by Anthonis van Dyck (GG 694), A Female Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens (GG 711), Hoffnung by Maerten van Heemskerck (GG 1946) and Faith (GG 1953.), a Venetian ceiling sketch (GG 6398), and a loan were still available at the general inspection on April 26, 1945. Sources used: Katharina Hammer "Shine in the Dark", Altaussee 1996 Franz Juraschek "Heimatblatt Oberösterreich", Linz 1947 British information service "World Press", 9 July 1947 Salzkammergut newspaper, January 6, 1946 Vienna Courier, November 19, 1945 Sabine Loitfellner, Pia Schölnberger "Salvage of cultural property under National Socialism: Myths - Background - Effects", April 18, 2016 Theodor Brückler, Art theft, art recovery and restitution in Austria 1938 to the present, 1999

  • Ischler Salzberg | Via Salis Bad Ischl

    Overview of the tunnels at the Ischler Salzberg Surname attack length sea level Mitterberg tunnels * Old Steinberg tunnel * Lipplesgraben tunnel Lower water mountain Neuberg tunnel Moosegg Test Gallery * Matthew Stollen Rossmoos test gallery Mitterberg - water tunnel Women's wood studs Amalia Stollen High water mountain Rabenbrunn tunnel * Elizabeth Stollen New Steinberg tunnel * John Stollen Hubkogl test tunnel Test gallery Rehkogl Medium water mountain Ludovika Stollen Joseph Stollen Maria Theresa Stollen Leopold Stollen Franz Stollen Langmoos drainage tunnel Franz Josef Erbstollen 1563 1567 1567 1567 1571 1577 1577 1584 1596 1610 1687 1689 1692 1712 1715 1725 1725 1725 1738 1747 1751 1775 1794 1794 1858 1895 197 938 236 100 1464 364 740 702 1073 40 1000 750 284 487 54 1013 1195 1590 1800 884 57 2860 886 852 1000 1024 909 625 959 894 880 851 1114 800 812 862 991 1030 764 722 680 643 588 503 16 tunnels with salt mining 1 tunnel without salt mining (Franz tunnel, 1794) 5 water tunnels (4 in the Pernecker and 1 in the Lauffner salt dome) 4 test tunnels 26 tunnels opened from 1563 - 1895 (333 years) These tunnels have the "old small salt storage" (Lauffner Salzstock) open minded ​ ​ All details about the Ischler Salzberg and mining in general Grubenriss Ischler Salzberg 1865 The mining managers of the Ischler – Salzberg Hans Khalss 1563 - 1571 (comes from Altaussee) ​ Thomas Kalssum around 1590 Martin Kalss (Martin Khalsen) around 1648 ​ Abraham Wibmerum around 1664 Hans Wibner, Hanns Wimmerum around 1710 ​ Anton Dicklberger 1808 – 1.4. 1838 ​ Franz von Schwind 1.4. 1838 – July 16, 1841 Alois von Rehorovsky 1.12. 1841 – 1.8. 1847 ​ ​ ​ ​ Gustav Knight 1.10. 1848 – September 9, 1849 Kk Hüttenmeister Ritter was born on January 5, 1807 in Aussee as a son of the kk Pfannhausverwalter Josef Ritter born and died on March 27, 1884 in Aussee in his house at Gartengasse 4, still today known as the "Ritterhäusel". After his checkered service - recorded in 1829 as mountain student, he worked in Ebensee, in Ischl, in Hallein, in Hallstatt, he also served in the Galician kk Salinas - he came in 1851 as Hüttenmeister to Aussee. The "Hüttenschaffer" Ritter became known in 1840 when he died introduced desk firing in the construction of a brick kiln with great success. He saved firewood and through the complete combustion of the wood, the salt be obtained purer. In addition to his work, he dealt with current topics, which he recorded in drawings. He is described as a "funny coot" and became more than locally known for his apt joke drawings. Experts referred to him as "Wilhelm Busch von Aussee". Numerous pen drawings also received Anna Plochl, who also valued his art very much. Hüttenmeister Ritter also gave an interesting description of carnival in 1876, in which he finally said: "....Memories of 3 beautiful days, the culmination of a momentous dream, similar to our whole life, where everyone tries to fool the other and to meet the task of finding their way forward by deceiving their neighbor." ​ Albert Hippmann17. 9. 1849-1. 7. 1865 Josef Wallmann July 1, 1865 – July 8, 1865 5. 1873 August Aigner July 1, 1873 – July 1 1. 1884 Karl Schedl January 1, 1884–1. 6. 1898 Robert von Possanner 6/1/1898–1. 4. 1901 Alexander Bretschneider April 1, 1901–1 1. 1909 Josef Griessenboeck1. 2. 1909-18. 11. 1924 Erich Alfred Kubla January 26, 1925 –8. 8. 1925 Franz Pickl January 4, 1926–29. 12. 1926 Julius Rotter January 1, 1927–1 7. 1933 ​ Erich Ressel July 1, 1933 – March 31. 1943 ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Paul Lepez 1/17/1944-31. 7. 1945 Heimo Mayrhofer January 1, 1946 – June 4, 1956 ​ Friedrich Hampel 1/1/1976 - 7/31/1978 ​ Rudolph Neuhold 1978 – 1988 Gerhard Hirner 1988 - 04/30/1993 ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Walter Oberth 05/01/1993 ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ Horst Sochor 1994 From May 1st, 1994, the mining companies were merged Altaussee, Hallstatt and Bad Ischl and the probe field for mining Salzkammergut Ernest Gaisbauer 1994 – 2005 Clade Michael from 2005 ​​ Sources used: Hollwöger Franz, Ausseer Land, Vienna 1956, page 90 and Dicklberger Anton, Salinengeschichte, volume 1, 1817, transcribed by Nussbaumer Thomas, Weitra 2018, page 375 f. Dicklberger Anton, Salinengeschichte, Volume 2, 1817, transcribed by Nussbaumer Thomas, Weitra 2018, page 422 f. Dicklberger Anton, Salinengeschichte, Volume 1, 1817, transcribed by Nussbaumer Thomas, Weitra 2018, page 389. Dicklberger Anton, Salinengeschichte, Volume 1, 1817, transcribed by Nussbaumer Thomas, Weitra 2018, page 439. Dicklberger Anton, Salinengeschichte, Volume 2, 1817, transcribed by Nussbaumer Thomas, Weitra 2018, page 568. Picture in the Bad Ischl City Museum, ground floor, Salzberg Ischl room. Schraml Carl, Saline History, Volume 1, pages 178, 181, 183. Picture in the Bad Ischl City Museum, ground floor, Salzberg Ischl room. Schraml Carl, Saline History, Volume 2, page 157. Thomanek Kurz, grains of salt, Leoben 2007, page 166. ​

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